US History – Chapter 10 Study Guide

Democratic
ensuring that all people have the same rights
Laissez Faire
idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs
Free Market
economic system in which goods and services are exchanged with little regulation
Marbury v. Madison
an 1803 court case in which the Supreme Court ruled that it had the power to decide whether laws passed by Congress were constitutional(Judicial Review)
Judicial Review
power of the Supreme Court to decide whether the acts of a President or laws passed by Congress are constitutional, and to reject a law it considers to be unconstitutional
Adam Smith
“wealth of nations” advocated the idea of laissez faire; or government not involving themselves in the economy.
The Wealth of Nations
a book written by Adam Smith, in which he argued in favor of a free market where goods and services are exchanged with little regulation
Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin was the secretary of the treasury under Thomas Jefferson. He was called the “Watchdog of the Treasury,” and proved to be as able as Alexander Hamilton. He agreed with Jefferson that a national debt was a bane rather than a blessing. Using strict controls of the economy, he succeeded in reducing the debt, and he balanced the budget.
John Marshall
appointed by John Adams as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
Alien and Sedition Acts
in 1798, Federalist-supported laws that permitted the President to expel foreigners, made it harder for immigrants to become citizens, and allowed for citizens to be jailed or fined if they criticized the government or its officials
Judiciary Act (1789)
law that created the structure of the SC and set up a system of district courts and circuit courts for the nation
Pinckney Treaty
treaty between spain and america that allowed americans to ship their goods down the Mississippi river and store them in New Orleans
Louisiana Purchase
vast territory between the mississippi river and rocky mountains
Expedition
long voyage of exploration
Continental Divide
An imaginary line that runs north and south along the highest points of the Rocky Mountains. Rivers flow west or east from this line.
Napoleon
leader of France at the time
Toussaint L’Ouverture
a slave in Haiti who led the slave revolt there
Meriwether Lewis & William Clark
men who explored the Louisiana purchase for Thomas Jefferson
Sacagawea
shoshone indian woman who acted as a “doctor” and translator for the Lewis and Clark expedition; also showed that they were a peaceful party because they had a woman with them
Zebulon Pike
the other guy who explored the Louisiana Purchase
Tribute
bribe
Impressment
the practice of forcing people into service
Embargo
ban on trade
Embargo Act
an 1807 law that imposed a total ban on all foreign trade
Smuggling
importing or exporting goods in violation of trade laws
Nonintercourse Act
an 1809 law that allowed americans to carry on trade with all nations except Britain and France
Barbary States
nations along the coast of North Africa
Empress of China
first American ship to trade with China
James Madison
President of the United States of America at this time
Treaty of Greenville
treaty signed by some Native Americans in 1795, giving up land that would later become part of Ohio
confederation
league of independent states or nations
Battle of Tippecanoe
In 1811, battle over white settlement in the Indiana Territory
War Hawks
members of Congress from the South and the West who called for war with Britain prior to the War of 1812
nationalism
excessive pride in one’s nation
William Henry Harrison
General who defeated the Indian forces led by Tecumseh and the Prophet
Andrew Jackson
turned frontier fighters into a strong army, as well as took Pensacola and Spanish Florida to keep the British from using it as a base, then marched through Mobile and set up camp in New Orleans. his force consisted of frontier fighters, choctaw indians, and citizens of new orleans
Prophet
Tecumseh’s brother, spiritual leader for native americans
Tecumseh
a shawnee leader; created a confederation of Indian nations which fell apart once he died
War of 1812
A war declared by the United States against Britain in 1812
Battle of Lake Erie
In the war of 1812, an american victory led by Oliver Perry against the British
Battle of New Orleans
At the end of the War of 1812, a battle between british and american forces that ended in american victory
Hartford Convention
gathering of new englanders to protest the War of 1812 by threatening to secede from the Union
Treaty of Ghent
peace treaty signed by britain and the US at the end of the war of 1812
USS Constitution
A large warship owned by the US during the 1800’s. It was used in the war of 1812.
Isaac Brock
used scare tactics to convince the Americans that the British were aiding the canadians
General William Hull
Attempted to invade Canada but failed because of Isaac Brock’s scare tactics
Francis Scott Key
wrote the poem ‘The Star Spangled Banner’
John Quincy Adams
an American delegate who said that in the Treaty of Ghent “Nothing was adjusted, nothing was settled”