American History – Chapter 7 Test Study Guide

Cotton gin
– “cotton engine” invented by Eli Whitney
– machine that made cotton easier to clean
Mass production
– the production of goods in large quantities
Industrial revolution
– social and economic reorganization where machines replaced hand tools and large-scale factory production developed
War of 1812
– conflict between the US and Great Britain caused by the British blockading ports and their support for American Indians resisting westward expansion
– led to the restrictions on US trade
– ended by a treaty that restored all conquered territories to their owners before outbreak of war
American System
– Pre-Civil War set of measures designed to unify the nation and strengthen its economy
– contained plans for protective tariffs, a national bank, and the development of a transportation system
Tariff
– a tax or duty on imports and exports
“Era of Good Feelings”
– Madison’s presidency
Nationalism
– placing the interest of the nation over everything else
Sectionalism
– placing the interests of one’s own region over the interests of the nation as a whole
Rush-Bagot Treaty
– led the United States and Canada to completely demilitarize their common border
– United States was ensuring national security by preventing future alteration with Canada
Convention of 1818
– fixed the U.S. border up to the Rocky Mountains
– compromised with GB to jointly occupy the Oregon territory for ten years
– US was making westward expansion while ensuring peace with GB (part of nationalism)
Adams-Onis Treaty
– Spain gave up its claims to the Oregon Territory Expansion and Florida to the US because they were too weak to police it
Monroe Doctrine
– policy that prevented any European interference in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere
Missouri Compromise
– a series of agreements passed by Congress to maintain the balance of power between slave and free states
Indian Removal Act
– act in which the federal government funded negotiating treaties to force Native Americans to move west
Trail of Tears
– The route that the United States government forced several Native American tribes to migrate to reservations west of the Mississippi River
– Those who walked the trail suffered greatly from disease and mistreatment.
Tariff of Abominations
– John C. Calhoun’s name for an 1828 tariff increase that Southerners thought to be profiting the North at their expense
“The South Carolina Exposition”
– a document that questioned John C. Calhoun’s theory (states had the right to nullify a federal law that it considered unconstitutional) –> nullification theory
Nullification
– a state’s refusal to recognize an act of Congress that it considers unconstitutional
“King Andrew I”
– political cartoon that portrays Jackson as king
– contains scenes of Jackson holding a scepter & the veto with the Constitution ripped
Eli Whitney
– Inventor of the cotton gin
Henry Clay
– House Speaker and a good compromiser
– promoted/created the American System
John Marshall
– Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
– made many decisions that strengthened the federal government and its control over the economy
John Quincy Adams
– secretary of state
– got voted president by Henry Clay because of his belief in the American System
Andrew Jackson
– Was popularized as a war general, became president after Adams
– He created the spoils system and removed Native Americans from US territory
Daniel Webster
– Massachusetts senator who rose in senate and delivered one of the greatest speeches in American history
John C. Calhoun
– Jackson’s vice president (From South Carolina)
– favored “Liberty first and Union afterwards”
Gibbons v. Ogden
– the court’s ruling declared that the federal government (not the states) had the power to regulate interstate trade
– strengthened the power of the national gov. by giving it the power to regulate just about everything that crosses state lines
McCulloch v. Maryland
– Chief Justice John Marshall strengthened the federal government’s control over the economy
– declared the Bank of the United States constitutional and denied Maryland the right to tax the Bank
– the court’s ruling supported the national gov. over the state gov.
Fletcher v. Peck
– Court nullified Georgia law that violated an individual’s right to enter into contracts
Worcester v. Georgia
– the court had to rule whether the Cherokee had the right to remain in Georgia
– they ruled in favor of the Cherokee nation saying that Georgia could not regulate Cherokee land
– they view them as a distinct political community
– (Gov’t is STRONG) the national government is able to overrule the state gov. and declare that only the federal gov. can deal with the Native Americans because they were neither a foreign nation or a state
Marbury v. Madison
– the court declared that the law on which Marbury based his claim was unconstitutional, therefore not giving him his papers
– Marshall pointed out, the power of the Supreme Court is set by the Constitution, and Congress does not have the authority to alter them –> (The Judiciary Act attempted to do just that)
– this example of Judicial review relates to checks and balances because it prevents judiciary from becoming too powerful
Nationalism v. Sectionalism
– Nationalism represented Constitution ideals with a strong national government
– Sectionalism represented Confederation ideals with a strong state government
Nationalism Examples
– The American System
– Monroe Doctrine
– Compromise of 1818
Sectionalism Examples
– Industrial Revolution
– Missouri Compromise
– Development of different economic systems in the North and South
American System Components
– to make US economically self-sufficient
– network of infrastructure (transportation)
– national bank (resurrection)
– to create a protective tariff
American System Causes
– War of 1812
– The government needed money and realized how hard it was to transport military
American System Effects
– South feared that the system benefited the North heavily because they have to buy industrial goods from the North
– (North getting wealthier from the South’s expenses)
Missouri Debate Causes
– There were 11 free states and 11 stave states so Missouri was crucial to the balance of the two sides
Missouri Debate Effects
– Henry Clay designed the Missouri Compact (states divided by 36º, 30º)
– Maine was admitted as a free state and Missouri was admitted a slave
– Louisiana Territory split in half for the two groups
– Slavery was banned North of the line and was allowed South of the line
Reaction of the Missouri Debate
– Jefferson feared the Union’s future after the compromise
– For a generation, the problem of slavery was temporarily settled
Solution for the Missouri Debate
– Under Henry Clay, Congress temporarily solved the crisis with a series of arrangements called the Missouri Compromise
Role of Executive Branch in Indian Removal
– Jackson disregarded the Judicial Branch and removes Cherokee from their land anyways
– “John Marshall has made his decision. Now let him enforce it”
Role of Judicial Branch in Indian Removal
– Court declared that Georgia government was wrong
– Stated they cannot evict Cherokee off their land because they are an “independent political entity”
Role of Legislative Branch in Indian Removal
– Passed an act to exchange lands with the Indians residing in any of the states or territories for their displacement West of the Mississippi River
– This gave the President power to oversee removal and negotiations with NA
States’ Rights in the Nullification Crisis
– South Carolina argued that they had the right to nullify any federal laws they felt was unconstitutional
Federal Authority in the Nullification Crisis
– They stated that the states willingly joined the US Union
– Said that they “owed obedience to the Constitution and to laws made in conformity with the powers vested in Congress”