American History Chapter 18

Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Heir to the Austrian throne who was assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia in June of 1914. His assassination led to the beginning of WWI.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
German emperor during WWI that wanted colonies for Germany. ,Autocratic ruler who symbolized ruthlessness and arrogance to many pro-Allied Americans. He built a strong army.
militarism
a policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war.
Triple Alliance
An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in the years before WWI.
Triple Entente
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
Balance of power
distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong.
Central Powers
World War I alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire.
Allied Powers
World War I alliance of Great Britian, France, and Russia, and later joined by Italy, the United States, and others.
Trench Warfare
A form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield.
Lusitania
a British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.
isolationism
a policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations.
U-boats
German submarines.
Sussex pledge
A promise Germany made to America, after Wilson threatened to sever ties, to stop sinking their ships without warning.
Zimmermann Note
a secret document to Mexico that said Germany would help them regain lost territories in Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico if they joined the war on the Central Powers side.
Selective Service Act
Law passed by Congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft.
Convoy system
the protection of merchant ships from U-boat-German submarine-attacks by having the ships travel in large groups escorted by warships.
Communists
people who favor the equal distribution of wealth and the end of all forms of private property.
Liberty bonds
Where people bought bonds so the government could get that money now for war. The bonds increased in interest over time.
Bernard Baruch
a Wall Street broker before being chosen by President Wilson in 1918 to head the War Industries Board. He helped the U.S. Manage war production.
National War Labor Board
a board that negotiated labor disputes and gave workers what they wanted to prevent strikes that would disrupt the war.
Committee on Public Information
It was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people’s minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel’s organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees. He proved that words were indeed weapons.
George Creel
Headed the Committee on Public Information, for promoting the war effort in WWI.
propaganda
ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause. , information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc.
Schenck v United States
Supreme court decides that any actions taken that present a “clear and present danger” to the public or government isn’t allowed, this can limit free speech.
Fourteen Points
wilson’s plan for world peace following world war I.
self-determination
The right of people to choose their own form of government.
League of Nations
An international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations.
David Lloyd George
Britain’s prime minister at the end of World War I whose goal was to make the Germans pay for the other countries’ staggering war losses.
Georges Clemenceau
An effective and almost dictator-like leader of France, who would not take defeat as an answer.
Big Four
The Big Four were the four most important leaders, and the most important ones at the Paris Peace Conference. They were Woodrow Wilson- USA, David Lloyd George- UK, George Clemenceau- France, and Vittorio Orlando- Italy.
reparations
payment for damages after a war.
Treaty of Versailles
The treaty imposed on Germany by France, Great Britain, the United States, and other Allied Powers after World War I. It demanded that Germany dismantle its military and give up some lands to Poland. It was resented by many Germans.
Henry Cabot Lodge
conservative senator who wanted to keep the united states out of the league of nations.